SEO tips

 SEO can be a lot like fad dieting.

There’s a lot of advice that promises fast results, but most of it doesn’t deliver.

Plus, many highly-touted SEO tactics just don’t work anymore.

If you’re using outdated practices it’s time to let them go.

You’ll also find that some new and cool trendy tactics don’t actually work for you.

Let’s focus on more actionable and proven SEO tactics.

The kind that will help you today.

1.Improve existing content with missing subtopics

Most first drafts aren’t perfect. You’ll almost certainly miss important points, which can hinder your page’s ability to rank in search engines.

So here’s what you can do:

Plug the URLs of the two or three top-ranking pages for your primary target keyword in  SERP watcher tool. Then plug your page’s URL at the bottom. Hit “Show keywords” and you’ll see the keywords that one or more of the top-ranking pages rank for, but you don’t.

Let’s do that for our post about structured data.

2.Start Building Your Expertise, Authority & Trust

If you’re a newcomer, it’s going to be hard to compete against a website that’s been around for 10 years.

There’s only one place to start: creating great content and pages that showcase your expertise (whether you’re an individual or a company).

That content should support your SEO and business goals.

3. Add internal link to new pages

Internal links are backlinks from one page on your website to another. They help visitors navigate from page to page, distribute ‘link authority’ throughout your site, and Google also uses their anchor text to understand context. 

The problem is that whenever you publish a new page, it’ll have few or no internal links. So if you want your page to stand the best chance of ranking, it makes sense to add some.

To find relevant opportunities, search Google for site:yourwebsite.com “keyword”.

4.Think SEO from the Start

When redesigning your website, bring in an SEO professional early in the process.

Design trends should be tailored to SEO best practices, especially for the mobile version of the site.

5.Monitor competing backlinks for underperforming content

If you’re not yet ranking number one for your target keyword, then it might be because competitors have more high-quality backlinks. You can get a sense of whether this is the case with  free SERP checker.

If the pages that outrank you have more websites linking to them (referring domains), that might be holding you back.

SEO Basic

 What is SEO?

Search engine optimization (SEO) is a process of optimizing your website with the goal of improving your rankings in the search results and getting more organic (non-paid) traffic.

The history of SEO dates back to the 90s when search engines emerged for the first time. Nowadays, it is an essential marketing strategy and an ever-growing industry.

Search engine optimization focuses only on organic search results and does not include PPC optimization. Both SEO and PPC are part of Search Engine Marketing.




The search engines are used by internet users when they are searching for something.

And you want to provide the answer to that something. It doesn’t matter whether you sell a product or service, write a blog, or anything else, search engine optimization is a must for every website owner.

To put it simply:

SEO is all the actions you do to make Google consider your website a quality source and rank it higher for your desired search queries.

Note: Although SEO stands for “search engine optimization”, with the current dominance of Google, we could simply use the term “Google optimization”.

That’s why all the tips and techniques in this guide are mainly about Google SEO, although many things are universal and apply to the optimization for any other search engine.


SEO in a nutshell

You don’t need to know ALL the factors and the exact algorithms Google uses to rank your website. But you need to cover the key components of SEO to be successful.

An easy way to understand the 3 most important factors is to imagine a bowl of soup – the SEO soup.



There are three key aspects of SEO:

  1. Technical stuff – The bowl represents all the technical aspects you need to cover (often referred to as technical or on-page SEO). Without a proper bowl, there would be nothing to hold the soup.

  2. Great content – The soup represents the content of your website – the most important part. Low-quality content = no rankings, it is that simple.

  3. Quality backlinks – The seasoning represents the backlinks that increase the authority of your website. You can have great content and a perfectly optimized website but ultimately, you need to gain authority by getting quality backlinks – the last ingredient to make your SEO soup perfect.

In the following chapters, we’ll take a look at all of these aspects from the practical point of view.

Useful vocabulary

As soon as you start digging into SEO, you’ll come across some common terms that try to categorize its various aspects or approaches, namely:

  • On-page SEO & off-page SEO

  • Black hat SEO & white hat SEO

Although they are not that important from the practical point of view, it is good to know their meaning.

On-page SEO & off-page SEO

The terms on-page and off-page SEO categorize the SEO activities based on whether you perform them on the website

On-page SEO is everything you can do on the website – from the optimization of content through technical aspects.

  • Keyword research

  • Content optimization

  • Title tag optimization

  • Page performance optimization

  • Internal linking

The goal is to provide both perfect content and UX while showing search engines what the page is about.

Note: The terms on-page SEO and technical SEO are sometimes used interchangeably and sometimes used to distinguish the content-related optimization (e.g. title tags) and technically-oriented optimization (e.g. page speed).

Off-page SEO is mostly about getting quality backlinks to show search engines that your website has authority and value. Link building may involve techniques like:

  • Guest blogging

  • Email outreach

  • Broken link building

Off-page SEO is also closely connected to other areas of online marketing, such as social media marketing and branding, which have an indirect impact on building the trust and authority of your website.

Remember that a successful SEO strategy consists of both on-page and off-page SEO activities.

White hat SEO vs. black hat SEO

Black hats and white hats have their origin in Western movies. They represented bad guys and good guys.

In SEO, the terms are used to describe two groups of SEOs – those who adhere to the rules set out by Google’s Webmaster Guidelines and those who don’t.



Black hat SEO is a set of unethical (and usually spammy) practices to improve the rankings of a website.

These techniques can get you to the top of the search results in a short time, however, search engines will most probably penalize and ban the website sooner or later.

White hat SEO, on the other hand, refers to all the regular SEO techniques that stick to the guidelines and rules. It is a long-term strategy in which good rankings are a side-product of good optimization, quality content, and a user-oriented approach.

While SEO experts agree that “white hat” is the way to go, there are different opinions on the acceptability of various link building techniques (including link buying).

Frequently asked questions

Can I do SEO on my own?

SEO is not easy. But it’s no rocket science either.

There are things you can implement right away and there are concepts that will take much more time and effort. So yes, you can do SEO on your own.

The only question is whether you are willing to invest some time into learning all the aspects of SEO, or you’ll hire a professional and invest your time into something else.

How can I learn SEO?

There’s a couple of things you should do to learn SEO:

  • Read reliable resources

  • Get hands-on experience

  • Don’t be afraid of experiments

  • Have a lot of patience (SEO is a marathon, not a sprint)

Implementing the things from this guide is a great way to start 🙂

How long does it take to learn SEO?

To answer this question, we’ll use a common answer of SEO experts to almost any SEO issue: it depends.

While understanding the basics won’t take you longer than a couple of weeks, the actual mastering of this discipline depends largely on the practice, which is a question of months, even years.

Last but not least, SEO is evolving all the time. You should always keep learning and stay updated with the latest updates, experiments and findings.

Do I need SEO tools?

If you’re serious about SEO, you shouldn’t neglect the useful data and insights provided by various SEO tools. They give you a great competitive advantage and save a lot of your time.

Here are some essential SEO tools every website owner should use:

Is SEO dead?

When people use the phrase “SEO is dead”, they usually mean that “the spammy attempts to cheat the Google algorithm that were used 10 years ago are dead”.

Other than that, search engine optimization is an essential marketing strategy and an ever-growing industry.


Facebook, Twitter, Instagram could be banned in India from tomorrow 😳 but why?

 Social media monsters like Facebook, Twitter, WhatsApp and Instagram may confront boycott in India in the event that they come up short to comply with the modern mediator rules for social media stages. The three-month due date given by the Service of Hardware & Data Innovation (MEITy) to acknowledge these rules closes nowadays i.e. May 25 but none of the mammoths have so distant acknowledged the modern controls. The rules will be successful from tomorrow in spite of these companies looking for a add up to six-month delay in their execution.


In the event that any of these social media stages come up short to acknowledge these rules, they hazard losing status as social media stages and securities as middle people. The government can too take activity against them as per the law of the arrive for not taking after the rules, a government official said. Meanwhile, Facebook has demonstrated that it'll comply with the IT rules. "We point to comply with the arrangements of the IT rules and proceed to talk about a couple of of the issues which require more engagement with the government. Agreeing to the IT rules, we are working to actualize operational forms and move forward efficiencies. Facebook remains committed to people's capacity to openly and securely express themselves on our stage," an official representative of the company said in a statement. The new rules were reported in February which needs expansive social media stages like Twitter, Facebook, Instagram and WhatsApp to take after extra due constancycounting arrangement of a chief compliance officer.

This is the conversation about facebook ban in India. 

Enhancement type MOSFET - construction, working, characteristic

Enhancement type MOSFET 

In this article , we will learn about the construction,working and the characteristics of the enhancement type of MOSFET. (you can check out for JFET and FET

Construction of enhancement type MOSFET (n channel) 

    Now, if we talk about the construction then in some aspects it is similar to the depletion type of MOSFET. 

Construction of enhancement type MOSFET

    So, if we see the construction of the n-channel enhancement type of MOSFET then the substrate is made up of p-type material and through the metallic contacts, the drain and the source terminals are connected to this n-type material. 
  And similar to the depletion type of MOSFET,the oxide layer isolates the gate terminal and the p-type substrate. But here unlike the depletion type of MOSFET,there is no channel between this drain and the source terminal.
 So, whenever we apply the control voltage,between the gate and the source terminal, then the channel is formed between  drain and the source terminal.
  So, here in this type of MOSFET, basically the application of the control voltage enhances the number of charge carrier . And due to that, the channel is getting created. 
   And that is why this type of MOSFET is known as the enhancement type of MOSFET. 

    Working of then-channel enhancement type of MOSFET 

let's understand how the channel is formed whenever we apply the control voltage. 
   
Working of enhancement type MOSFET

So, initially, here if Vgs is kept is zero and the voltage is applied between this drain and the source terminal ,then due to the absenceof the channel, there will not be any flow of current through this MOSFET. 
   So, whenever Vgs is zero, then this MOSFET will remain in the OFF condition.         when we apply the positive value of Vgs. , the substrate and the source terminals are connected together. And they are connected to the ground terminal. 
    The  positive voltage is applied between the gate and the source terminal. And for a moment, let's assume that  voltage Vds is equal to zero. 
    Now, holes are the majority carriers in the p-type substrate. And whenever we apply the positive voltage at this gate terminal, then the holes which are near the oxide layer will be pushed awayfrom the gate terminal. 
   And at the same time, the electrons which are the minority carriers in the p-type substrate will also get attracted towards the gate terminal.
    But at the lower voltage of Vgs, these electrons will get recombined with the majority charge carriers. 
   Now, as we keep on increasing this voltage Vgs, then the holes will be pushed more and more deeper into the substrate  and the electrons will be able to overcome the recombination with these holes. 
    And they will be rushed towards the gate terminal. But due to this insulating layer, they will not be able to cross this oxide layer. And they will start accumulating near the oxide layer. 
  So, eventually, the inversion layer of free electrons will get created near this oxide layer. And now this inversion layer will act as a channel between this drain and the source terminal. 
     now, suppose if we apply the voltage between the drain and the source terminal, then the current can flow through this channel. 
  So, the value of the gate to source voltage at which this inversion layer is getting created is known as the threshold voltage. below this threshold voltage, there will not be any flow of current through the MOSFET. 
    whenever the Vgs is greater than this threshold voltage, then the width of the channel will increase. So, in this way, due to the application of the voltage Vgs, the channel is formed between the drain and the source terminal. 
   But along with this channel, there will also be a depletion layer around this channel. Because if you observe, there are two PN junctionswhich are reversed biased. So, the first PN -junction is formed between the drain and the substrate. And the second PN - junction is formed between the substrate and the source terminal. And if you observe,  both PN -junctions are reverse biased. So, now we will consider that this voltage Vgs is already greater than the threshold voltage. 
    now let's see what happens when we apply the voltage Vds. 
  So, when we apply the voltage Vds, then through the channel electrons get attracted towards this positive terminal. And in this way, the current will establish in this circuit. 
  And the conventional current will flow from the drain terminal towards the source terminal. But now if you observe, the width of the channelhas been reduced towards the drain side. Because now, due to the positive voltage at the drain terminal, the PN junction will get more reversed biased. And due to that, the width of the depletion region will increase. So, because of that, the effective channel width towards the drain terminal will reduce. 
   And the same phenomenon can be also explained in another way. So, once we apply the drain to source voltage,then the voltage difference between this gate and the drain terminal will reduce. So, the voltage difference between these two terminals will be equal to Vgs - Vds
    as the source or the substrate terminal is grounded, so we can say that the difference will be equal to Vg - Vd. So, as the value of the voltage Vd will increase,then the difference between these two voltages will reduce. On the other end, this source terminal is connected to the ground terminal. So, the voltage difference between the gate and the source terminal will remain as it is. 
   So, due to that, the gate terminal which is towards the drain side will be less positive than the other side. And hence, this region will attract few erelectrons compared to the other side. And due to this reason, the channel width gets narrower as we go from the source terminal towards the drain terminal. 

    And as we keep on increasing the  voltage Vds, then at one particular voltage, the pinch-off condition will occur. So, at that particular voltage, the drain current which is flowing through the circuit will get saturated. So, the voltage Vds, at which this pinch-off condition occurs is known as the saturation voltage. 
saturation voltage can be expressed as
       Vgs - Vt. 
  Where Vt is the threshold voltage. 
   That means the pinch-off condition will occur whenever the difference between the gate and the drain terminal is just equal to the threshold voltage. 
  At  the threshold voltage, the channel is just getting created between the drain and the source terminal. So, for the fixed value of Vgs, if we further increase the value of Vds, the voltage difference between the gate and the drain terminal willbe even lesser than this threshold voltage. And due to that, the channel will not get formed towards the drain terminal. 
    So, it appears that the current through the channel should become zero. But actually if you see, still the currentwill flow through this channel and the current 'Id' will get saturated. Because the electrons which are passing through this channel can still be able to cross this depletion layer due to the electric force.
    So, once the pinch-off condition occurs, then the current Id gets saturated. And even if we increase the value of voltage Vds, still the current through this circuit will remain almost constant.

 Drain curves or the Id vs Vds curves for the different value of Vgs

Drain characteristic


       As the value of Vgs will increase, the current Id will also increase. 
    this parabolic curve shows the locus of the voltage Vds, where the drain current Id will get saturated. 
  In this graph, the left region of curve   is known as either linear of the ohmic region. So, in this region, the MOSFET can be operated as a voltage controlled resistor.    For the fixed value of Vds, as we change the value of voltage Vgs, then the width of the channel will change. Or we can say that effectively the channel resistance will change.
     So, whenever the Vds is less than Vgs - Vt, and Vgs is greater than Vt,  in that case, the MOSFET is operated in this linear region. And in this region, it can be operated as a voltage controlled resistor

    Then if we talk about the next region, thenit is the cut-off region(the axis of Vds region). 
    So, whenever, this voltage Vgs is less thanVt, in that case, the current through the MOSFET is zero. Or we can say that the MOSFET will remainin the OFF condition. 

  Region of operation/ saturation region 

  Whenever the MOSFET is operated on the right-hand side of the locus, then we can say that it is operating in the saturation region. 
    Mathematically we can say that whenever this voltage Vds is greater than or equal to Vgs - Vt, at that time it is operating in this saturation region.
   

 Transfer characteristics

   
Transfer characteristic

Transfer characteristic shows the relationship between the input voltage Vgs and the output drain current Id. 
  So, basically, it shows how the drain current Id changes as we change the value of voltage Vgs.
    While plotting this characteristic the voltage Vds has been kept constant. 
    So, as you can see, up to the threshold voltage,the drain current Id is zero. And after that, as we increase the value of voltage Vgs, then the drain current Id will increase. 
  The relationship between the current and the voltage Vgs can be given as 
       Id = k (Vgs - Vt)^2. 
Where K is the device constant and it depends on the physical parameters of the device.
     So, using this expression, we can find the value of drain current for the fixed value of Vgs. Alright, so far we have discussed the n-channel MOSFET. 
   This is all about n channel enhancement type MOSFET. Thank you. 
Depletion type MOSFET : construction , working and characteristics

 In the earlier article  of the field effect transistor, we have briefly discussed about the different types of FET. And in detail we have already discussed about the JFET.

      So in this article  let discuss  the second type of FET, which is known as IGFET and here this IGFET stands for insulated gate field effect transistor .

     So  in this IGFET, the gate terminal is isolated from the channel using the insulating layer and the MOSFET is the most common type of IGFET. 

    So here this MOSFET stands for metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effecttransistor.  

   Classification of MOSFET 

   MOSFET can be further classified as 

  •  depletion type of MOSFET 
  •  enhancement type of MOSFET. 

 Depletion type  MOSFET 


N channel depletion type MOSFET 

Construction of n channel depletion type MOSFET 

Construction of depletion type of MOSFET

  •       If you see this n-channel depletion type of MOSFET then the channel is made up of n-type material and the substrate is p-type material.  
  •      Through the metallic contacts the drain and the source terminals are connected to this n-channel and similarly the gate terminal is also connected through this metallic contact. 
  •   There is no direct connection between  N channel and gate terminal. And the gate terminal is isolated from the channel using this SiO2 layer. 
  •    MOSFET  is consists of the metallic contacts for  drain, gate and the source terminals, then the  insulating layer and the conducting channel which is made up of the semiconductor material. And that is why this MOSFET is known as themetal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor. 
  •    Now due to this insulating layer there will not be any flow of current through this gate terminal. Or we can say that the input impedance of the  gate terminal is very high and in fact it is even higher than the JFETs. (And that is why these MOSFETs are used inthe application where the minimum power consumption is required). 

 Working of depletion type MOSFET

Working of depletion type of MOSFET

 Initially let us assume that the gate and the source terminals are connected together. And they are connected to the ground terminal, means initially let us assume that Vgs is equal to zero volt. 

When VDS is positive , of depletion type MOSFET 

  • The positive voltage is applied between this drain and the source terminal. So as soon as we apply the positive voltage then the electrons in this N channel will get attracted towards the positive terminal.
  •  the electron starts moving towards the drain terminal from source terminal.  And in this way the current will establish in  N channel. 
  •  if we keep on increasing the voltage between the  drain and the source terminal then the current which is flowing through the channel will increase. 
  • this process will continue until all the electrons in this channel will contributes in the flow of current.And then after if we increase the voltage then the current ,which is flowing through the channel , will become constant.
  •  so if you see the direction ofthe conventional current then it will flow from the drain terminal towards the source terminal. 
  •  For the Vgs is equal to zero, the output or the drain characteristic then it will look like this. 

Depletion type MOSFET output characteristic

That means as we keep on increasing the value of voltage VDS then the drain current ID will increase.And after certain voltage, the drain current ID will become constant.


          The value of the saturation current for Vgs is equal to zero is known as the IDSS.

    

When VGS is negative , of depletion type MOSFET 


Depletion type MOSFET at negative voltage

  •       when the voltage Vgs is negative, the negative voltage , the gate terminal will push the electrons towards the substrate and at the same time the holes in the p-type substrate will also get attracted towards these electrons.
  •  So ,due to the negative voltage at the gate terminal the electrons in the channel will get recombined with this holes. And the rate of the recombination will depend on the applied negative voltage.
  •     so as we increase this negative voltage then the rate of recombination will increase. And that will reduce the number of free electrons which is available in this n-channel. And effectively it reduces the flow of current.

Depletion type MOSFET output characteristic

     So as you can see from the graph, as the value of VGS  will become more and more negative,then the value of drain current will reduce.

[ What is pinch-off voltage? 

     And at one voltage this drain current will become zero. so this voltage Vgs is known as the pinch-off voltage. ]

 So if you see the drain or the output characteristic of the MOSFET then it looks quite similar to the JFET. But this MOSFET also works for the positive values of  Vgs. 

   what happens when we apply the positive voltage (VGS) ?

Whenever we apply the positive voltage at the gate terminal then the electrons which are minority carriers in p-type substrate will also get attracted towards this n-channel. And due to that,the number of free electrons in this N channel will increase. so effectively we can say that the flow of current in this n-channel will increase. so for the positive value of voltage Vgs the drain current ID will be even more than this IDSS

Transfer characteristic of depletion type MOSFET 

       Transfer characteristic is defines as  the relationship between the input and the output quantity. so basically it defines the relationship between the drain current ID and  VGS for the fixed value of VDS

     so if you see the transfer characteristic then it will be similar to the JFET. But now you will also get the value of current ID for the positive values of VGS.  So due to that the curve will get extended towards the right-hand side.

Transfer characteristic of depletion type MOSFET

      Now as we have seen whenever this  VGS is positive then the number of free electrons in the channel will increase and due to that this region where the VGS is positive, is known as the enhancement region and the region where the  VGS   is negative is known as depletion region.

     But still the relationship between this current ID and the voltage VGS can be expressed by the same expression 

Expression for transfer characteristic


       So using this expression we can find the value ofdrain current ID for the given value of VGS . 

P channel depletion type MOSFET 

P channel depletion type MOSFET

So similarly let us briefly discuss about the p-channel type of MOSFET . So in case of a p-channel depletion type MOSFET the channel is made up of p-type semiconductor material and the substrate is n-type.  

     For the P channel MOSFET, now the polarity of the applied voltage will also get reversed that means this voltage VDS will be negative and this voltage VGS will be positive .

    let us see how the current will flow whenever  VGS is equal to 0. So when Vgs is equal to 0 and Vds is applied in this fashion that means when Vds is negative then the holes in this p-type channelwill get attracted towards the negative terminal and the flow of holes will be established in this fashion.

P channel depletion type MOSFET

 And in this case the conventional current will also flow in the same direction. now whenever we apply the positive value of voltage VGS then the holes will be pushed towards the n-type substrate and at the same time the electrons in this n-type substrate will also get attracted towards the p-type channel.

        Due to that this holes and the electrons will get recombined and as we keep on increasing this voltage VGS  then the number of holes in this p-type channel will reduce and effectively the flow of current in this p-type channel will reduce.

Output characteristic of p channel depletion type MOSFET

      So if you see the drain or the output characteristic of this p-channel MOSFET then it will look like this. buthere this voltage VDS is negative and the voltage VGS is positive. So as you can see as we keep on increasing this voltage VGS then the drain current ID will reduce and at the pinch off voltage this drain current  will become zero. and whenever this VGS is negative then the value of drain current will be even higher than the VDSS


Transfer characteristic of p channel depletion type MOSFET

        similarly if you see the transfer characteristic then it will look like this. 

Symbol of depletion type MOSFET 

      So now let us seethe electronic symbols of this n-channel and p-channel MOSFETs. 

Symbol of depletion type MOSFET

So if you see the symbols of depletion type of MOSFET then they resembles the actual construction of the MOSFET. 

     it consists of a three terminals that is gate, drain and the source .

 there is a space between this gate terminal and this channel.

    line which connects the drain and the source terminal represents the channel. 

 the space between this gate terminal and the channel represents that the gate terminal is isolated from the channel. 

   Now if you observe the n-channel and the p-channel MOSFETs then the only difference between the two symbol is the direction of the arrow. 

    If it is going inward then it indicates the n-channel MOSFET and if it is going outwards then it represents the p-channel MOSFET. 

basically it indicates the direction of the flow of current whenever the PN Junction which is formed by the channel and the substrate is forward biased. 

      So incase of the N channel MOSFET whenever this PN Junction is forward biased then the current will flow in this direction and similarly for the P channel MOSFET whenever this PN Junction is forward bias then current will flow in the outward direction. So basically by the direction of the arrow we can differentiate these two symbols. 

  So I hope in this article  you understood the construction, working and the different characteristic of this depletion type MOSFET. So similarly in the upcoming articles we will learn about the enhancement type of MOSFET. So if you have any question or suggestion do let me know here in the comment section below. If you like this article hit comment below  and do email  subscribe  for more such amazing article.